The Briton edged to the front with 800m to go and despite being almost tripped on his last lap, clocked 26 minutes and 49 seconds – his best time since 2011.
Joshua Cheptegei of Uganda was second in 26:49.94 with Kenya’s Paul Tanui third in 26:50.60.
Friday night’s victory was Farah’s sixth world title overall.
The win comes five years to the day since he claimed Olympic 10,000m gold on ‘Super Saturday’ at London 2012 and extends his unbeaten run over the distance to nine races stretching back to 2011.
He will again look to complete a double at a major championships when he begins the defence of his 5,000m title in the heats on Wednesday.
Success in the event would bring his final medal on the track as he will turn his focus to the marathon following the World Championships.